Science Outreach

Species’ thermal affinities inform community responses to warming oceans

Photo © Jeffrey CC

In a letter recently published in Nature Climate Change, Burrows and colleagues describe how the thermal affinities of marine species can be used collectively to inform how the structure of the communities that they occupy may change in response to warming oceans.

Their study was based upon three decades of fish and plankton data, and revealed a tendency for warm-water species to increase in dominance in regions of the world where water temperatures are increasing. The authors also found that temperature-depth gradients influence biodiversity redistribution and shifts in relative species abundance within marine communities. Such gradients allow species to seek cooler temperatures by moving deeper, rather than horizontally.

Collectively, these findings highlight the strong effect that temperature changes have on marine community turnover rates, and provide “a benchmark against which the pace of reorganization of global biodiversity climate can be judged”.

You can read the full study here.

Science Outreach

Towards a sustainable and equitable blue economy

Interest in the economic potential of the world’s oceans (i.e. the ‘blue economy’) is currently higher than ever, however, concerns remain about the health of oceans both now and moving into the future.

In a recent article published in Nature Sustainability, Bennett and colleagues discuss how the rapid, unbridled development of a ‘blue economy’ may impact the marine environment and human wellbeing, particularly in coastal countries and small-island developing states. The authors then outline five priorities that should be considered in developing a sustainable and equitable blue economy, which focus on the need for proactive cooperation and action among civil society, governments and private sectors at both local and international scales.

You can read more about the five priorities here, and the sustainability research being completed in the lead up to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) here.

In Seychelles, diverse groups of experts and stakeholders are already meeting to discuss the developing blue economy. Photo © dronepicr CC

 

Science Outreach

Rapid reorganization of global biodiversity

Species richness is a simple metric commonly used in Community Ecology to describe the number of species present within an ecosystem or environment. While useful to note in many circumstances, the use of richness measures to monitor ecosystem-level changes over time is often hindered by the inability of such data to record species turnover rates. That is, the frequency at which species become extinct and are replaced.

Tropical marine biomes displayed high rates of species turnover. Photo © USFWS/Jim Maragos CC

In an article published last month in Science, Blowes and colleagues examine “the geography of biodiversity change in marine and terrestrial assemblages“. By considering changes in species richness and composition across more than 50,000 biodiversity time series from 239 studies, the authors were able to show that while assemblage richness values do not change on average around the world, compositional changes within biomes are rapid and prevalent. Furthermore, the extent of this compositional “reorganisation” of species was greater in marine biomes than terrestrial biomes.

By identifying hotspots of biodiversity change, conservation priorities across biomes can be assessed. Appropriate management strategies can then be put in place to ensure that diverse and resilient communities can persist under our changing climate.

You can read more about this study in the Perspective article written by Eriksson and Hillebrand here.